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2022

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The use of organic solvents

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1. Flammable organic solvent

Many organic solvents can cause fires and even explosions if not handled properly. Once the mixture of solvent and air burns, it spreads rapidly. The firepower is large enough to ignite flammable objects in an instant. When the oxygen is sufficient (such as caused by the leakage of oxygen cylinder), the fire is fierce enough to make some non-flammable substances burn. When flammable organic solvent vapors mix with air and reach a certain concentration range, explosion can even occur.

When using flammable organic solvents, pay attention to the following:

(1) Place the container of flammable liquid on the lower reagent rack.

(2) Keep the container closed. Only open the lid of the container when the liquid needs to be poured.

(3) Flammable organic solvents should be used in places with no fire source and good ventilation (such as fume hood), but the amount should not be too large.

(4) When storing flammable solvents, the storage amount should be reduced as far as possible to avoid causing danger.

(5) When heating flammable liquid, it is best to use oil bath or water bath, not with open flame heating.

(6) When using flammable organic solvents, special attention should be paid to the use temperature and experimental conditions. Table 1 shows the ignition point, spontaneous combustion temperature and combustion concentration range of commonly used flammable organic solvents.

(7) The combustion of the mixture of chemical gas and air will cause an explosion (for example, 3.25g acetone gas combustion release energy equivalent to 10g explosive), so the combustion experiment needs to be carefully operated.

(8) In the process of use, the following common ignition sources should be vigilant: open flame (Bunsen burner, welding torch, oil lamp, fireplace, ignition, matches), Mars (power switch, friction), heat source (electric heating plate, filament, electric heating cover, oven, radiator, movable heater, cigarette), electrostatic charge.

The ignition point, spontaneous combustion temperature and combustion concentration range of commonly used flammable organic solvents

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